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Bond Market Doubts Fed's Higher-for-Longer Mantra

September 17, 2023
minute read

In the midst of indications that the bond market has embraced the Federal Reserve's commitment to maintaining higher interest rates for an extended period, a group of investors is positioning themselves for a scenario in which the economy encounters significant headwinds and prompts a swift policy reversal.

Treasury yields have recently stabilized within narrow ranges, residing near their highest levels in over a decade. This trend persists despite data reflecting a resilient economy and inflation consistently exceeding the Fed's 2% target. However, with yields seemingly anticipating a peak in the policy rate, the outlook for economic growth assumes paramount significance.

The past week has witnessed a surge in demand for options that offer profitability in the event of a substantial decline in interest rates before the middle of the coming year. This outlook appears grimmer than what is currently reflected in the swaps market, where traders are no longer factoring in the possibility of a rate cut in the first half of 2024.

Bond traders have been making such speculative bets since the commencement of the tightening cycle, albeit with limited success thus far. Nevertheless, this time around, there is a belief that circumstances may differ as the Federal Reserve's tightening measures have had more time to permeate the broader economy.

The consensus expectation is for the Federal Reserve to maintain its policy rate at the upcoming meeting, following the tenth rate hike in July, marking an aggressive hiking cycle that began in March of the preceding year. Furthermore, there is a significant anticipation of the Fed revising its growth forecast upward and hinting at another rate increase within the current year, as indicated in its "dot plot." The rate outlook for 2024 remains a subject of debate, with the median projection in June suggesting a full percentage point reduction by the end of the subsequent year.

As long as interest rates remain elevated, the risk of an economic downturn persists. There are increasing signs of consumer strain, with higher borrowing costs and weaker hiring starting to erode household spending. With the Fed appearing to approach its peak policy rate, the primary focus has shifted toward the possibility of a softening in economic growth.

Roger Hallam, Global Head of Rates at Vanguard Asset Management, commented, "There is a question mark around whether the economy is transitioning to a soft landing or does the labor market weaken towards a more recessionary outlook."

Notably, there has been heightened demand for options tied to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), closely tracking the anticipated path of the Fed's policy rate. These options involve hedging against multiple rate cuts before June, complementing existing positions aligned with the Fed's current messaging, thus enabling certain traders to capitalize on an unexpected policy shift.

One trade, for instance, positioned for a 3% rate by the middle of the following year, compared to the current market level of around 5%, involved a premium payment exceeding $10 million. Similar trades for the March timeframe were also executed during the course of the week.

The increasing inclination towards betting on the possibility of the Fed shifting towards rate cuts by mid-2024, or even earlier, contrasts starkly with the central bank's emphasis on a "higher-for-longer" narrative. Meanwhile, the current Fed rate, standing at 5.25%-5.5%, significantly surpasses the U.S. annual inflation rate and the three-month annualized figure, raising concerns about its impact on economic growth.

"There is an increasing risk of recession as rates stay high and nominal growth comes down," cautioned a chief strategist, adding, "As inflation is coming down, central bank policy is getting tighter, and if they don't consider this, it will increase the risk of an accident."

Given the uncertainty surrounding the economic and interest rate outlook, there has been a growing preference for parking funds in cash-equivalents. Shorter-dated Treasuries yielding over 5% have garnered a substantial portion of investment flows, locking in relatively attractive yields, as indicated by EPFR fund data for this year.

Monica Defend, Head of the Amundi Institute, finds the middle segment of the Treasury yield curve appealing for a multi-strategy portfolio. With the expectation of prolonged higher interest rates, yields are anticipated to trend lower as economic conditions weaken, making the five- to ten-year sectors an attractive alternative to equities, in her view.

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Cathy Hills
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Cathy Hills
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